In this study we investigate the effects of long-term technology enhanced learning (TEL) in mathematics learning performance and fluency, and how technology enhanced learning can be integrated into regular curriculum. The study was conducted in five second grade classes. Two of the classes formed a treatment group and the remaining three formed a control group. The treatment group used TEL in one mathematics lesson per week for 18 to 24 months. Other lessons were not changed. The difference in learning performance between the groups tested using a post-test; for that, we used a mathematics performance test and a mathematics fluency test. The results showed that the treatment group using TEL got statistically significantly higher learning performance results compared to the control group. The difference in arithmetic fluency was not statistically significant even though there was a small difference in favor of the treatment group. However, the difference in errors made in the fluency test was statistically significant in favor of the treatment group.
Program visualization (PV) is potentially a useful method for teaching programming basics to novice programmers. However, there are very few studies on the effects of PV. We have developed a PV tool called ViLLE at the University of Turku. In this paper, multiple studies on the effects of the tool are presented. In addition, new qualitative data about students' feedback of using the tool is presented. Both, the results of our studies and the feedback indicate that ViLLE can be used effectively in teaching basic programming concepts to novice programmers.