This article gives a general framework for the understanding of the use of ICT in primary, secondary (vocational education excluded) and tertiary education in both Finland and Hong Kong. We describe the quantity and quality of ICT infrastructure and teachers' skills and attitudes towards it. Based on various surveys and scientific research, the pedagogical use of ICT is also studied from the pupils' and teachers' viewpoint. There is also some discussion on developmental challenges.
The main task of this follow-up study was to describe teachers' expectations, experiences and possible changes in the pedagogical use of ICT. As a part of an ICT development project, three sets of data were gathered from a region in Eastern Finland, by means of questionnaire. A total of 156 teachers of primary and early secondary education returned the questionnaire in 1999, 155 teachers in 2001, and 81 in 2004. The results indicate that teachers have increased their use of various ICT applications (especially data processors, web-browsers, e-mails, and CD-ROMs) both in their private lives and in pedagogical practice. Based on their own self-assessment, the teachers' ICT abilities have improved during the project period. Co-operative activities by means of ICT also increased between colleagues. Although teachers saw ICT as helpful for pupils' learning, some sceptical attitudes emerged as well.