The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the pre-service computer science teachers' attitudes towards computer programming (ATCP). The sample consists of 119 pre-service teachers at a public state university. The influences of students' demographic characteristics (gender, grade level, and high school type), their achievement in computer programming courses, perceived learning, and computer programming self-efficacy on their ATCP were tested using multiple linear regression. Descriptive, correlation and regression analyses revealed three findings: (1) students had moderately high ATCP, (2) their ATCP had significant correlations with their achievement in computer programming courses, computer programming self-efficacy, and perceived learning, and (3) three variables (achievement in computer programming courses, computer programming self-efficacy, and perceived learning) were significant predictors of their ATCP.
The use of different tools in the field of education has become widespread with the developments in technology. Online student response systems are one of these tools. Online student response systems have been used for many years. In the last couple of years, game items have been added, and game-based online student response systems have started to be used. In this context, this study aims to find out the effects of online student response systems both with and without being based on games on the achievements, engagements, and test anxiety levels of students. The study group consists of 46 seventh grade students (Control, 23; Experimental, 23). This study was conducted by using a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test groups. The topics in the "living democracy" chapter of social studies course were taught for four weeks by using the online student response system named Socrative for the control group and the online game-based student response system called Kahoot for the experimental group. The results of the study showed that game-based student response systems increase the achievement and engagement and decrease the test anxiety level when compared to non-game-based student response systems. In this direction, it may be suggested to use online game-based student response systems on different topics of social studies courses.