The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) topics into K–12 school curricula is a relatively new but crucial challenge faced by education systems worldwide. Attempts to address this challenge are hindered by a serious lack of curriculum materials and tools to aid teachers in teaching AI. This article introduces the theoretical foundations and design principles for implementing co-design projects in AI education, empirically tested in 12 Finnish classrooms. The article describes a project where 4th- and 7th-graders (N = 213) explored the basics of AI by creating their own AI-driven applications. Additionally, a framework for distributed scaffolding is presented, aiming to foster children's agency, understanding, creativity, and ethical awareness in the age of AI.
The current study investigates the attitudes of teachers towards Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) and their knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content via TPACK model that assesses the competencies for developing and implementing successful teaching. There were 280 participants in the study. The results of the study indicate that teachers' attitudes towards CAE scores are much higher than their TPACK scores. There is a low level positive correlation between their TPACK competencies and their attitudes towards CAE. Particularly, teachers' competencies of Technology Knowledge (TK) and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) have much higher relationship with their attitude towards CAE when compared to other competencies. Attitude toward CAE is observed to differ by gender. As for TPACK competencies, TK and Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) differ by gender. The TPACK framework explains 20% of attitudes towards CAE. TK is the construct having the highest effect in explaining the attitude towards using CAE.
C++ is the most commonly used language in introductory and intermediate programming courses in Bulgarian universities. In recent years this language has developed greatly. Its abstractions are more flexible and affordable than ever before. Such great number of changes are related to the launch of the new standard (known as C++11) that we have grounds to consider it even a new language. It is inevitable to reflect all these changes in training courses and this prompted us to consider not only some updating of academic curricula but also a comprehensive reorganization of our programming courses. So, in this article we share our successes and difficulties in this direction.
Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP) is related to many difficulties. There is no single view on their causes among the university teachers. The results of applying various methods of teaching - with early or late introduction of the objects, are controversial too.
This work presents the results of a study designed to analyze and classify the difficulties encountered in the teaching of OOP in Bulgarian universities as well as the possibilities for dealing with them. Two viewpoints have been considered - of lecturers and of students. The issues under consideration are: when and what should be studied, what should be stressed, what languages and environments should be used, what examples are the most suitable, and what educational goals the programming courses should achieve.
Our investigation was aimed also to confirm or cast aside our suppositions that important aspects in teaching/learning OOP are being underestimated: great attention is being paid to the data in a class at the expence of the behavior of the objects in a program; more than necessary is being stressed onto the syntactic peculiarities in defining classes and objects without detailed clarification why they are needed; the auxiliary didactic tools that are being used are insufficient.