An exploratory study of students' engagement in online learning and knowledge building is presented in this paper. Learning in an online community, composed of students (pre-service teachers) and experts (experienced in-service schoolteachers and academics), is the study's primary focus. Students' interaction and knowledge discourse structures, arising from individual readings of academic papers and asynchronous collaboration with peers and experts, are investigated using social network and content analysis techniques. Additionally, several new measures for exploring structural-qualitative aspects of knowledge discourse are introduced. Analysis revealed several important trends. First, students' interaction was more intensive in forums where experienced teachers participated, rather than students only. Second, students' individual discourse structures in their postings were quite deep, knowledge-focussed and elaborated; while students' replies were short, usually focussed on specific idea and contained a substantial amount of non-cognitive information. Overall, it is argued that students were engaged with the individual and collaborative knowledge building in the online learning community. Practical implications of the study results for development of courses are discussed.
Understanding about the objectives of ICT literacy and the ways in which it should be enhanced vary. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of notions of ICT literacy is presented. Current notions of ICT literacy in different segments of policymaking and implementation in Australia are analysed and compared. Two dimensions (intended and implemented) and three theoretical perspectives (ICT policy, literacy policy and teaching and learning) are covered in this analysis. Similarities and differences in the understanding of ICT literacy at the national and regional levels and in various segments of decision-making and implementation are revealed. The complexity of the ICT literacy phenomenon is described. It is shown that, at the intended level, the formation of the notion of ICT literacy is strongly influenced by thinking about ICT literacy in ICT and educational policies. At the implemented level, the notion of ICT literacy is strongly influenced by various local factors and even implementation routines.
In 2003 a working group established on the initiative of the Centre of Information Technology of Education under the Ministry of Education and Science, has been reviewing regulations for the assessment and certification of educational software. This article analizes the main aspects of the proposed orders. It discusses general structure of quality assurance system, the procedures for the certification of standard and permanently renewable digital educational resources, and the main criteria and principles of the evaluation of educational software in Lithuania. In parallel, it investigates and summarizes research results and foreign policies and practices on quality assurance. Finally, the article compares them with Lithuanian regulations.
This article analyses the informatics exam of secondary education in Lithuania. The research evaluates the correspondence of examination tasks to the exam program and its aims. Then, it studies the equality of examination variants. The article also discusses the clarity of the exam questions and instructions as well as the organization of the exam and the objectivity of evaluation criteria.
This article analyses the field of research on information and communication technology (ICT) in education. It reviews the results of ICT researches carried out in the world. First, the article presents the retrospective of researches on ICT implementation into education. Summarizing them, it reviews main research findings in five areas of ICT implementation: 1) the impact of ICT use on students achievements and attitudes; 2) the impact of ICT use on teachers; 3) the effect of teachers' factors and instructional methods on ICT efficiency; 4) the influence of infrastructure and organizational factors on ICT efficiency; 5) the effect of specific software design features. Then, the paper reviews the main recent and future directions of researches on ICT in education, in the world. Finally, it shortly reviews the most important future directions of ICT research and development in Lithuania. The article concludes that in spite of numerous ICT studies worldwide the national research and experiments have to be carried out in order to implement ICT in an appropriate for Lithuania and efficient way.