This paper presents a systematic literature review of the coordinated use of Learning Analytics and Computational Ontologies to support educators in the process of academic performance evaluation of students. The aim is to provide a general overview for researchers about the current state of this relationship between Learning Analytics and Ontologies, and how they have been applied in a coordinated way. We selected 31 of a total of 1230 studies related to the research questions. The retrieved studies were analyzed from two perspectives: first, we analyzed the approaches where researchers used Learning Analytics and Ontologies in a coordinated way to describe some Taxonomy of Educational Objectives; In the second perspective, we seek to identify which models or methods have been used as an analytical tool for educational data. The results of this review suggest that: 1) few studies consider that student interactions in the Learning Management System can represent students’ learning experiences; 2) most studies use ontologies in the context of learning object assessment to enable learning sequencing; 3) we did not identify methods of evaluation of academic performance guided by Taxonomies of Educational Objectives; and 4) no studies were identified that report the coordinated use of Learning Analytics and Computational Ontologies, in the context of academic performance monitoring. Thus, we identify future directions of research such as the proposal of a new model of evaluation of academic performance.
The paper is aimed to present a methodology of learning personalisation based on applying Resource Description Framework (RDF) standard model. Research results are two-fold: first, the results of systematic literature review on Linked Data, RDF "subject-predicate-object" triples, and Web Ontology Language (OWL) application in education are presented, and, second, RDF triples-based learning personalisation methodology is proposed. The review revealed that OWL, Linked Data, and triples-based RDF standard model could be successfully used in education. On the other hand, although OWL, Linked Data approach and RDF standard model are already well-known in scientific literature, only few authors have analysed its application to personalise learning process, but many authors agree that OWL, Linked Data and RDF-based learning personalisation trends should be further analysed. The main scientific contribution of the paper is presentation of original methodology to create personalised RDF triples to further development of corresponding OWL-based ontologies and recommender system. According to this methodology, RDF-based personalisation of learning should be based on applying students' learning styles and intelligent technologies. The main advantages of this approach are analyses of interlinks between students' learning styles according to Felder-Silverman learning styles model and suitable learning components (learning objects and learning activities). There are three RDF triples used while creating the methodology: "student's learning style - requires - suitable learning objects", "student's learning style - requires - suitable learning activities", and "suitable learning activities - require - suitable learning objects". In the last triple, "suitable learning activities" being the object in the 2nd triple, becomes the subject in the 3rd triple. The methodology is based on applying pedagogically sound vocabularies of learning components (i.e. learning objects and learning activities), experts' collective intelligence to identify learning objects and learning methods / activities that are most suitable for particular students, and intelligent technologies (i.e. ontologies and recommender system). This methodology based on applying personalised RDF triples is aimed at improving learning quality and effectiveness.
The paper aims to analyse several scientific approaches how to evaluate, implement or choose learning content and software suitable for personalised users/learners needs. Learning objects metadata customisation method as well as the Method of multiple criteria evaluation and optimisation of learning software represented by the experts' additive utility function are analysed in more detail. The value of the experts' additive utility function depends on the learning software quality evaluation criteria, their ratings and weights. The Method is based on the software engineering Principle which claims that one should evaluate the learning software using the two different groups of quality evaluation criteria - `internal quality' criteria defining the general software quality aspects, and `quality in use' criteria defining software personalisation possibilities. The application of the Method and Principle for the evaluation and optimisation of learning software is innovative in technology enhanced learning theory and practice. Application of the method of the experts' (decision makers') subjectivity minimisation analysed in the paper is also a new aspect in technology enhanced learning science. All aforementioned approaches propose an efficient practical instrumentality how to evaluate, design or choose learning content and software suitable for personalised learners needs.