We investigate the possibility to apply a known machine learning algorithm of Q-learning in the domain of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It is important in this problem domain to have algorithms that learn their optimal values in a rather short time expressed in terms of the iteration number. The problem domain is a VLE in which an agent plays a role of the teacher. With time it moves to different states and makes decisions which regarding action to choose for moving from current state to the next state. Some actions taken are more efficient than others. The transition process through the set of states ends in a final (goal) state, one which provides the agent with the largest benefit possible. The best course of action is to reach the goal state with the maximum return available. This paper introduces a way of definition of a rewards matrix, which allows the maximum tolerance for the changes of a discounted reward value to be achieved. It also proposes way of an application of the Q-learning that allows a teaching policy to exist, which maps the situation in the learning environment.
Two years ago the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at Sofia University makes a decision to design a new series of Logo-based courses which make use of the modern technology. The pedagogical component of the challenge is to design a multidisciplinary course suitable for students with different skills and interests. From a development perspective the challenge is to build an entirely new one. And finally the course must be attractive regardless of the seriousness and complexity of the topics included in it.
The paper discusses the structure of the course including the final weeks when topics emerging from students' course projects are taught. Each lesson from the course is based on sets of sample programs representing the general lifecycle of software development. This includes designing, coding and debugging. Samples are created on-the-fly, thus different instances of the course results in different final projects. Lessons are interactive and students may interfere with the direction of demonstrated software development.
A reversible sequence of steps from the specification of the algorithm and the mathematical definition of the recurrent solution through the recursive procedure, the tail recursive procedure and finally to the iteration procedure, is shown. The notation for analysing recursive function execution as well as modified flow charts of an algorithm to identify the differences between the iteration and the tail recursion are proposed. All the procedures are written in Logo, so the lists are used as the data structure. Transformation from the recursive procedure to the iterative procedure and vice versa can be shown in such a way in every language in which the recursion is allowed. All examples are one-recursion-call examples and all except one are the functions of discrete mathematics.
LOGO has been evolving in incremental steps for 40 years. This has resulted in steady progress but some regions of the space of all programming languages for children cannot be reached without passing through unacceptable intermediate designs. What are the ultimate aims of LOGO? What criteria and aesthetics should be used in determining which areas of the design space are most promising? What would the ideal programming language look like? Would a family of special-purpose languages be more effective than a single language?
In looking to the future what can we learn from the history of LOGO? What can we learn from other programming systems for children? Alan Kay is leading a new project entitled, ``Steps toward the Reinvention of Programming''. What are its strengths and weaknesses?
We can conceptualise the design alternatives as defining an n-dimensional space. Some dimensions represent major alternatives for syntax, others for dealing with concurrency, others for the underlying computational models, and others for features of the programming environment.
The goal of this paper is to spur a discussion of these issues. I will present my personal opinions based upon 30 years of research experience in this field.
This study focuses on the use of innovative Tablet PC technology in learning and teaching mathematics. Specifically the effects of incorporating Tablet PC technology in pre-service teachers' mathematics education were analyzed. The significant impact of technology use in mathematics education was assessed by evaluating and comparing students' final project and course grades. Grade performance of two groups of students was compared. One group was the treatment group where students extensively used Tablet PCs to work on mathematical investigations and explorations and to create lesson plans and animated games through PowerPoint presentations. The other group was the control group where students worked on identical mathematics investigations and created lesson plans without utilizing any technology. The outcome shows that the technology enhanced group achieved significantly higher scores than the control group. This outcome indicates a greater improvement in the treatment group's understanding of mathematical content versus that of the control group's.
The paper addresses the problem of fragmentation of the communities involved in the design of digital media for education. It draws on the experience gained at the Educational Technology Lab in the design of Logo-based microworlds with three different platforms respectively based on component computing, 3D game engines and 3D navigation with a GIS. In this paper I use the term half-baked to describe a microworld which is explicitly designed to engage its users with changing it as the main aspect of their activity. I discuss this kind of microworld as a tool for integrated design involving people with diverse expertise and/or roles to communicate. These kinds of microworlds implicitly exist within the community, but they can be explicitly designed mediated and put to use in the role of facilitators for integrated design and development to enable a growing communication amongst researchers, technicians, teachers and students. A template for presenting microworlds which was constructed through the experience with four such integrated communities is used to describe for each respective case the design principles, the affordances, the histories of development and the variety of emergent microworlds.
Issues related to 3d turtle's navigation and geometrical figures' manipulation in the simulated 3d space of a newly developed computational environment, MaLT, are reported and discussed here. The joint use of meaningful formalism and the dynamic manipulation of graphically represented 3d figures seem to offer new resources and to pose new challenges as far as geometrical activities and construction of meanings are concerned, which are strongly related to the representational infrastructure of MaLT.
Abilities such as spatial orientation and spatial visualisation come into play and are interwoven with the software's functionalities and semantics. Although the body-syntonic metaphor remains critical while navigating the turtle in the 3d simulated space, it seems that it has to be co-ordinated with other - often conflicting one another - frames of reference. The strong link between spatial graphical and geometrical aspects, that was accentuated by the dragging functionalities of the software, helped students go beyond an immediate perceptual approach, relating geometrical figures with real 3d objects and the change of planes in 3d space with physical angle situations. In this framework the concept of angle as turn and measure with emphasis on directionality but also as a relationship between the planes defined by 2d figures has arisen as central.
Conventional wisdom attributes the lack of effective technology use in classrooms to a shortage of professional development or poorly run professional development. At the same time, logo-like learning environments require teachers to develop more expertise not only in technology but also in pedagogy.
This paper proposes that the perceived lack of technology professional development is a myth and that traditional professional development is ill-suited to teaching teachers how to create logo-like learning environments. Furthermore, it proposes models of student-centered, student-led support for teachers that support classroom practice aligned with the attributes of logo-like learning environments. These models situate teacher learning about technology in their own classroom, reinforce constructivist teaching practices, provide support for technology use in the classroom, and enrich learning environments for students.
We consider in this paper some programming competition problems (which are near to some problems of ACM competitions) of the following subjects: we can make their solution using both Prolog and a classical procedure-oriented language. Moreover, the considered problems are selected that their solution in Prolog and in a classical procedure-oriented language are similar - i.e., in other words, they use the same working mechanism, the same approach to constructing recursive functions etc. However, the main goal of this paper is to demonstrate, that the solution of most of these problems by the students is a step to design the real problems of artificial intellegence.
Changes in educational technologies modify the role of the teacher and require new competencies. Scientific literature describes competence in using ICT as the wholeness of two structural components - basic and educational ICT competence. The conception has been considered conducting research on would-be teachers' competence in applying ICT. The article deals with the exposition of would-be teachers' competence in applying ICT in the process of teaching practice and focuses on the impact of studying informatics in forms 11 and 12 on the development of the latter competence. Research disclosed that would-be teachers had fully mastered ordinary abilities demonstrating basic and educational competencies in ICT. The development of would-be teachers' competence has been accepted as a permanent process starting yet before the studies at university within the process of learning informatics in forms 11 and 12.