The aim of the present study was to investigate the properties of paper-and-pencil data collection instruments developed to measure Computational Thinking (CT) based on several variables. Thus, keywords were identified and used in searches conducted in various databases. The outcomes of the search were analyzed based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria and 64 studies that focused on CT measurement were identified. Content analysis findings were classified under several themes. Based the present study findings, it was determined that the number of tools developed to measure CT demonstrated an increasing trend over time. Furthermore, it was found that the above-mentioned studies included mainly tests. Moreover, it was observed that the processes of ensuring validity and reliability were not clearly specified for more than half of the paper-and-pencil data collection instruments designed to measure CT. Based on the findings, several recommendations were presented for future studies and implementations in the related field.
An exploratory study of students' engagement in online learning and knowledge building is presented in this paper. Learning in an online community, composed of students (pre-service teachers) and experts (experienced in-service schoolteachers and academics), is the study's primary focus. Students' interaction and knowledge discourse structures, arising from individual readings of academic papers and asynchronous collaboration with peers and experts, are investigated using social network and content analysis techniques. Additionally, several new measures for exploring structural-qualitative aspects of knowledge discourse are introduced. Analysis revealed several important trends. First, students' interaction was more intensive in forums where experienced teachers participated, rather than students only. Second, students' individual discourse structures in their postings were quite deep, knowledge-focussed and elaborated; while students' replies were short, usually focussed on specific idea and contained a substantial amount of non-cognitive information. Overall, it is argued that students were engaged with the individual and collaborative knowledge building in the online learning community. Practical implications of the study results for development of courses are discussed.