Nowadays, the rapid development of ICT has brought more flexible forms that push the boundaries of classic teaching methodology. This paper is an analysis of online teaching and learning forced by the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared with traditional education approaches. In this regard, we assessed the performance of students studying in the face-to-face, online and hybrid mode for an engineering degree in Computer Science at the Lublin University of Technology during the years 2019-2022. A total of 1827 final test scores were examined using machine learning models and the Shapley additive explanations method. The results show an average increase in performance on final tests scores for students using online and hybrid modes, but the difference did not exceed 10% of the point maximum. Moreover, the students' work had a much higher impact on the final test scores than did the study system and their profile features.
This research discusses the use of a gamified web platform for studying software modeling with Unified Modeling Language (UML). Although UML is constantly being improved and studied, many works show that there is difficulty in teaching and learning the subject, due to the complexity of its concepts and the students' cognitive difficulties with abstraction. There are challenges for instructors to find different pedagogical strategies to teach modeling. The platform proposed allowed students to complement their UML knowledge in an environment with game elements. From the results, it can be concluded that the platform obtained great acceptance and satisfaction of use. Most of the students participating in the research were satisfied with the usability of the platform, reporting a feeling of contribution of the tool to studying the content, in addition to pointing out the satisfaction of using gamification as a pedagogical strategy.
This paper presents an educational setting that attempts to enhance students’ understanding and facilitate students’ linking-inferencing skills. The proposed setting is structured in three stages. The first stage intends to explore students’ prior knowledge. The second stage aims to help students tackle their difficulties and misconceptions and deepen their understanding of the topics under study. This is attempted through individual student engagement in suitably-designed activities and relative feedback. As recorded in previous research, students’ difficulties feedback on the material development. The third stage of the educational setting exploits social interaction to help students reorganize their knowledge of the concepts under study. The web-based application of the proposed educational setting indicated improvement in first-year Computer Science (CS) students’ understanding of fundamental Computer Architecture concepts and progress in students’ linking-inference skills. These results encourage integration in the instructional process of interventions designed according to the proposed setting in order to support and enhance students’ understanding of troublesome concepts and their interrelations.
Machine Learning (ML) is becoming increasingly present in our lives. Thus, it is important to introduce ML already in High School, enabling young people to become conscious users and creators of intelligent solutions. Yet, as typically ML is taught only in higher education, there is still a lack of knowledge on how to properly teach younger students. Therefore, in this systematic literature review, we analyze findings on teaching ML in High School with regard to content, pedagogical strategy, and technology. Results show that High School students were able to understand and apply basic ML concepts, algorithms and tasks. Pedagogical strategies focusing on active problem/project-based hands-on approaches were successful in engaging students and demonstrated positive learning effects. Visual as well as text-based programming environments supported students to build ML models in an effective way. Yet, the review also identified the need for more rigorous evaluations on how to teach ML.
The teaching and learning of programming has proven to be a challenge for students of computer courses, since it presents challenges and requires complex skills for the good development of students. The traditional teaching model is not able to motivate students and arouse their interest in the topic. The tool proposed herein, the REA-LP, aims to facilitate the study and retention of content related to the discipline of programming logic at the technical level by presenting its content through various types of media, in addition to allowing students to actively participate in the construction of their knowledge, favoring engagement and motivation. From the results of an empirical study with 39 students, it can be concluded that the tool was very well accepted, being effective in facilitating and assisting participants in their learning, motivation, and interest in classes, mainly due to the way in which the content is presented by REA-LP.
In Education 4.0, a personalized learning process is expected, and that students are the protagonist. In this new education format, it is necessary to prepare students with the skills and competencies of the 21st-Century, such as teamwork, creativity, and autonomy. One of the ways to develop skills and competencies in students can be through block programming, which can be used with emerging technologies such as robotics and IoT and in an interdisciplinary way. Thus, block programming in High School is important because it is possible to work on aspects such as problem-solving, algorithmic thinking, among other skills (Perin et al., 2021), which are necessary in the contemporary world. Thus, our Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) aims to identify which block programming tools support of Education 4.0 in High School. Overall, 46 papers were selected, and data were extracted. Based on the results, a total of 24 identified block programming tools that can be used in high school collaboratively and playfully and with an interdisciplinary methodology. Moreover, it was possible to see that most studies address block programming with high school students, demonstrating a lack of studies that address block programming with teachers. This SMS contributed to identifying block programming tools, emerging technologies, audience (teacher or student), and learning spaces where block programming is being worked on.
Computational Thinking (CT) has emerged in recent years as a thematic trend in education in many countries and several initiatives have been developed for its inclusion in school curricula. There are many pedagogical strategies to promote the development of elementary school students’ CT skills and knowledge. Unplugged learning tasks, block-based programming projects, and educational robotics are 3 of the most used strategies. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of Scratch-based activities, developed during one scholar year, on the computational thinking skills developed and concepts achieved by 4th-grade students. The study involved 189 students from two school clusters organized into an experimental group and a control group. To assess students’ computational knowledge, the Beginners Computational Thinking Test developed by Several Zapata-Cáceres et al. (2020) was used. The results indicate statistically significant differences between the groups, in which students in the experimental group (who performed activities with scratch) scored higher on the test than students in the control group (who did not use Scratch).
The article describes a study carried out on pupils aged 12-13 with no prior programming experience. The study examined how they learn to use loops with a fixed number of repetitions. Pupils were given a set of programming tasks to solve, without any preparatory or accompanying instruction or explanation, in a block-based visual programming environment. Pupils’ programs were analyzed to identify possible misconceptions and factors influencing them. Four misconceptions involving comprehension of the loop concept and repeat command were detected. Some of these misconceptions were found to have an impact on a pupil’s need to ask the computer to check the correctness of his/her program. Some of the changes made to tasks had an impact on the frequency of these misconceptions and could be the factors influencing them. Teachers and course book writers will be able to use the results of our research to create an appropriate curriculum. This will enable pupils to acquire and subsequently deal with misconceptions that could prevent the correct understanding of created concepts.